JakartaBali.com — There are no effective solutions so far regarding flood problem in Jakarta. The Indonesia capital city was hit by floods starting in early 2013. Flooding occurred evenly distributed throughout the greater Jakarta area. Some access roads were cut off. Water as high as 20 centimeter to several meters inundated the streets.

Heavy rainfall is blamed to be the major cause of water volume increases. Rivers and reservoirs overflowed. Levees were broken and unable to hold much water. However, flooding should not occur simply because of the high rainfall intensity. The most important question is why flooding is still occurring and more widespread in the capital?

Urban planning observer, Nirwono Joga, said a number of factors contributed to the flooding in Jakarta for 2013. In general, there have been major changes in the layout space in Jakarta and surrounding municipalities, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi.

The first factor, the green open space in Jakarta has change to the development, such as housing, buildings, and roads. Rainwater infiltration is reduced and eventually causes the water flowing into the streets.

“Most of the flooding that occurred in Jakarta occurred in response to water areas, water catchments, the first since the Dutch period is reserved for green space,” he said in Jakarta, Tuesday (22/01/2013).

Joga said the government should strictly limit commercial development in Jakarta. New building must be checked to be sure that as much as 30 percent have been providing recharge sources in accordance with the law.

Second, the drainage systems are poor in Jakarta. According to Joga, drains should be tipped into the river or sea, not to the catchments area or into the ground. The government should undertake the revitalization of the drainage system around the streets of Jakarta and protocols such as Sarinah, Thamrin, Sudirman, and others. Governments also need to create an eco-system drainage water to leach the source.

Third, dams / reservoirs are not functioning optimally. Based on his notes, in the 1990s, Jakarta has 70 dams. However, there are only 42 dams right now. There are as many as 50 percent of the dams were not run as expected. Reservoirs in Jakarta filled with water hyacinth plants, sewage, and garbage. Silting had caused mud sedimentation. Reservoirs were finally dried and then used as a residential area.

“To improve the functioning of the facilities, dredging and regulation needs to be done. When optimized, the reservoir could become backup water supply,” he explained.

Fourth, the government should normalize the function of the rivers and relocating settlements on the banks of the river to the place livable.

“We hope the rivers can run as normal in 5 years ahead. The rivers should have width at least 100 meters, compared to 20-30 meters today,” he said.